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India – Hong Kong bilateral relations

India – Bangladesh bilateral relations


The relationship between India and Bangladesh is deeply rooted in shared history, culture, and common interests. From cultural ties to diplomatic collaborations, this article provides an in-depth exploration of the bilateral relations between these two South Asian nations, highlighting their historical journey and recent developments.

Historical Background:

Cultural and Historical Ties: India and Bangladesh share a rich cultural and historical heritage. Notably, Rabindranath Tagore, a Bengali-Indian polymath, composed the national anthems for both countries, fostering a unique bond. These shared ties extend to a mutual passion for music, literature, and the arts.

Bangladesh Liberation War: The two nations stood as strong allies during the Bangladesh Liberation War in 1971, underscoring their commitment to each other’s sovereignty and independence.

Bilateral Engagement and Trade: With the onset of economic liberalization in South Asia, India and Bangladesh have further intensified their bilateral engagement and trade, with the historic Ganges Water Sharing Treaty of 1996 being a notable achievement.

Recent Developments:

Border Accord: In September 2011, India and Bangladesh signed a significant accord on border demarcation, resolving a four-decade-old boundary dispute. This agreement, known as the “Tin Bigha Corridor,” marked a significant step in enhancing their diplomatic relations.

Joint Military Exercises: In 2011, the Indian and Bangladeshi armies participated in Sampriti-II (Unity-II), a joint military exercise aimed at increasing synergy between their forces. This exemplifies the growing collaboration in the defence sector.

Economic Cooperation: In recent years, both countries have taken substantial steps to bolster economic cooperation. Agreements signed during Foreign Minister Sushma Swaraj’s visit in June 2014 focused on easing visa regimes, establishing special economic zones in Bangladesh, and enhancing trade and transportation links.

Defence Agreements: The defence sector has also witnessed progress, with Bangladesh and India signing their first defence agreements in April 2017. These agreements paved the way for joint military exercises, intelligence sharing, and disaster relief collaborations.

Maritime Security: Both nations have embarked on initiatives to strengthen maritime security partnerships, including the establishment of a coastal surveillance radar system in key ports.

Economic Activity:

Bilateral Trade: The trade relationship between India and Bangladesh has thrived, with bilateral trade surpassing US$10 billion in 2018–19. Bangladesh is emerging as a significant trade partner for India.

Investment and Loans: India has been proactive in providing financial assistance to Bangladesh for infrastructure development. Loans amounting to $750 million in 2011 and a $1 billion soft loan in 2014 are examples of India’s commitment to enhancing Bangladesh’s infrastructure.

Future Economic Prospects: During Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina’s visit to India in September 2022, discussions emphasized Indian investments in Bangladesh’s manufacturing, energy, transportation, and infrastructure sectors, highlighting the potential for mutual economic growth.

COVID-19 Pandemic Cooperation:

During the COVID-19 pandemic, both countries cooperated in managing the crisis. Bangladesh initiated mass vaccinations with India’s Covishield vaccines, and they exchanged medical aid and support, demonstrating solidarity in challenging times.


The multifaceted relationship between India and Bangladesh reflects a harmonious blend of shared history, cultural bonds, diplomatic achievements, and economic growth. These two South Asian neighbours continue to strengthen their partnership through collaboration in diverse sectors, underlining the importance of regional cooperation and mutual prosperity.

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